Introduction to Basic Github Commands and Reverts

This blog emphasizes the crucial role of effective version control, particularly with Git and GitHub, in the dynamic field of software development. It highlights Git as an industry standard for tracking changes and maintaining code integrity. GitHub is introduced as a robust platform facilitating collaborative workflows through features like pull requests and code reviews.

The blog promises to provide a comprehensive guide on GitHub commands and reverting changes, catering to both novice and experienced web developers. The exploration includes fundamental Git commands, insights into branching, merging, and collaborative workflows on GitHub, and a focus on the art of reverting changes. The ultimate goal is for readers to gain a refined understanding of these tools, along with insights into best practices and real-world problem-solving strategies.

The passage encourages developers to embark on this journey to enhance their proficiency in version control, and collaborative coding skills, and gain a nuanced perspective on overcoming challenges in software development.

Basic Github Commands

🔸 git init: Initializing a New Git Repository

$ mkdir new_project
$ cd new_project
$ git init

This command is used to start a new Git repository. When you execute git init in a directory, Git creates a new repository, adding a hidden subfolder within the existing directory that houses the internal data structure required for version control.

🔸 git clone: Cloning a Repository

$ git clone

To work on an existing project, you use git clone followed by the URL of the repository. This command not only downloads the project files but also sets up a connection to the original repository, enabling you to pull in updates or contribute by pushing your changes.

🔸 git add: Staging Changes

$ git add
$ git add file2.html
$ git add

Before committing changes, you need to stage them using git add. This command tells Git to remember the changes you made so they can be saved in the next update You can specify specific files or use wildcards (git add .) to stage all changes.

🔸 git commit: Committing Changes

$ git commit -m "Initial commit"

After staging changes, git commit records the changes to the repository. Each commit comes with a unique identifier and a message that describes the changes made. Commits create a timeline of the project, allowing you to track and manage its development.

🔸 git push: Pushing Changes to a Remote Repository

$ git push origin main

To share your local commits with a remote repository (like on Github Commands), you use git push. This command uploads your changes, making them accessible to others collaborating on the same project. It’s a crucial step in the collaborative development process.

🔸 git pull: Pulling Changes from a Remote Repository

$ git pull origin main

When others make changes to the remote repository, you fetch those changes to your local repository using git pull. This ensures that your local copy is up-to-date and includes the latest modifications made by your collaborators.

These basic Git commands form the foundation of version control, enabling developers to manage and collaborate on projects effectively. Understanding when and how to use these commands is essential for maintaining a coherent and well-documented development history. As you delve deeper into Git, you’ll discover additional GitHub Commands and concepts that build upon these fundamentals.

Branching and Merging

🔸 Creating Branches (git branch)

$ git branch feature_branch

Here, feature_branch is the name of the new branch. This command creates a new branch without switching to it. To switch to the newly created branch, you can use git checkout feature_branch.

🔸 Switching Branches (git checkout)

$ git checkout feature_branch

This command allows you to switch to the specified branch (feature_branch in this case). Once switched, any changes made will be within the context of this branch.

🔸 Merging Branches (git merge)

$ git checkout main
$ git merge feature_branch

Here, we switch to the main branch and then use git merge to integrate changes from feature_branch into the main. This creates a new merge commit that combines the changes from both branches.

🔸 Resolving Merge Conflicts

Suppose you have conflicting changes in the same file when merging. Git will mark the conflicts, and you need to resolve them manually. After resolving conflicts, you proceed with the merge:

$ git merge feature_branch
# Git indicates conflicts
# Manually resolve conflicts in the affected files
$ git add conflicted_file.txt
$ git merge --continue

In this example, conflicted_file.txt is a file with conflicts. After manually resolving conflicts, you use git add to stage the resolved file, and then git merge –continue to complete the merge.

Understanding branching and merging is pivotal for managing parallel lines of development in a project. Branches provide isolation for feature development or bug fixes, and merging integrates these changes back into the main codebase. This workflow enables collaborative development without disrupting the stability of the main branch.

Reverting Changes

🔸 Understanding the Need for Reverts

Sometimes, in the course of development, mistakes happen or a feature doesn’t work as intended. Reverting changes is crucial in such scenarios to restore the codebase to a previous, functional state.

🔸 git revert: Creating a New Commit that Undoes a Previous Commit

Suppose a commit with the hash abcd123 introduced a bug, and you want to revert it:

$ git revert abcd123

This command creates a new commit that undoes the changes made in the specified commit (abcd123). It’s a safe way to reverse undesirable changes without altering the commit history.

🔸 git reset: Discarding Changes in a Local Branch

If you want to discard changes in your local branch without creating a new commit, you can use git reset:

$ git reset --hard HEAD

This command resets the branch’s HEAD to the specified commit (HEAD in this case), discarding all changes in the working directory and staging area. Be cautious with the –hard option, as it permanently discards changes.

🔸 Dealing with Mistakes in Commits

Mistakes can occur in commits, such as a wrong commit message or changes in the wrong files. To amend the last commit:

$ git commit --amend

This command opens the default text editor, allowing you to modify the commit message or add more changes. It’s useful for fixing minor mistakes in the last commit before pushing.

Reverting changes is an essential skill in version control, providing a safety net when unexpected issues arise. Whether it’s undoing specific commits or discarding local changes, these Github Commands offer flexibility and precision in managing the codebase. Remember to use them judiciously to maintain a clean and reliable project history

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Resetting and Rolling Back

🔸 Soft Reset vs. Hard Reset

A soft reset retains changes in your working directory but unsets the changes from the staging area. A hard reset, on the other hand, discards changes in both the working directory and the staging area.

$ git reset --soft HEAD^

In this example, –soft ensures that the changes in the last commit are moved to the working directory, but they remain staged.

$ git reset --hard HEAD^

Here, –hard discards both the changes in the working directory and the staging area, effectively rolling back to the previous commit.

🔸 Rolling Back to a Specific Commit

$ git reset --hard <commit_hash>

To roll back to a specific commit, replace <commit_hash> with the hash of the target commit. This command discards all commits made after the specified commit, effectively resetting the branch to that state.

🔸 Amending the Last Commit

$ git commit --amend

As mentioned earlier, git commit –amend allows you to modify the last commit. This is useful for updating the commit message or adding changes you forgot to include initially.

Understanding when to use soft or hard resets, as well as rolling back to a specific commit, is crucial for maintaining a clean and coherent project history. Amending the last commit provides a quick way to fix small mistakes without creating new commits. These tools offer flexibility in managing your project’s timeline effectively, including GitHub Commands.

Interactive Rebasing

🔸 git rebase -i: Rewriting Commit History Interactively

$ git reset --hard HEAD^

Interactive rebasing allows you to rewrite commit history by specifying various actions for each commit. In this example, HEAD~3 represents the last three commits from the current branch. Running this command opens an interactive text file where you can choose actions such as pick, squash, edit, reword, or drop for each commit.

🔸 Squashing and Splitting Commits

$ git rebase -i HEAD~3

In the interactive rebase file, change pick to squash for the commits you want to combine. This will merge the selected commits into one, allowing you to consolidate changes and create a more concise commit history.

$ git rebase -i HEAD~3

In the interactive rebase file, change the pick to edit for the commit you want to split. After editing the commit, use git add to stage the changes you want in a new commit, followed by git commit. Then, continue the rebase with git rebase –continue.

🔸 Cleaning up the Commit History

$ git rebase -i HEAD~5

Use Github Commands to clean up the commit history by reordering, squashing, or dropping commits. This can help create a more organized and understandable history, especially before merging branches or pushing changes to a shared repository.

Interactive rebasing provides a flexible and powerful way to mold and commit history according to project needs. It allows developers to maintain a clean and coherent history by organizing commits logically and addressing issues such as unnecessary intermediate commits. However, caution is advised when using interactive rebasing on commits that have already been pushed to a shared repository, as it can alter shared history and potentially lead to conflicts for collaborators.

Best Practices and Tips

Let’s explore the best practices and tips for version control, focusing on commit messages, commit size, and effective branch usage:

🔸 Commit Message Conventions

$ git commit -m "feat: add user authentication"

Adopting a commit message convention helps in quickly understanding the purpose of a commit. In this example, the commit message follows the convention of starting with a type (feat for feature) and then providing a concise description of the change.

🔸 Keeping Commits Small and Focused

$ git add file1.js
$ git commit -m "feat: implement user login"
$ git add file2.js
$ git commit -m "feat: implement user registration"

Breaking down changes into small, focused commits makes it easier to track, understand, and revert if necessary. Each commit should represent a single logical change. In this example, two separate commits are made for implementing user login and user registration.

🔸 Using Branches Effectively

$ git branch feature/user-auth
$ git checkout feature/user-auth

In the interactive rebase file, change pick to squash for the commits you want to combine. This will merge the selected commits into one, allowing you to consolidate changes and create a more concise commit history.

$ git rebase -i HEAD~3

In the interactive rebase file, change the pick to edit for the commit you want to split. After editing the commit, use git add to stage the changes you want in a new commit, followed by git commit. Then, continue the rebase with git rebase –continue.

These best practices enhance collaboration and maintain a clean and comprehensible version of history. Clear commit messages, small and focused changes, and effective branch usage contribute to a more manageable and efficient version control workflow.

Common Scenarios and Problem-Solving

Let’s explore common scenarios and problem-solving techniques in version control with examples:

🔸 Recovering Lost Commits

$ git reflog
$ git checkout -b new_branch_name commit_hash

If you accidentally delete a branch or lose commits, the git reflog command helps you identify the lost commit’s hash. You can then create a new branch using the identified commit hash to recover lost work.

🔸 Handling Detached HEAD State

$ git branch temp_branch
$ git checkout temp_branch
$ git branch -f main HEAD
$ git checkout main

If you find yourself in a detached HEAD state, create a temporary branch (temp_branch) to store your changes. Then, forcefully move the main branch to the current commit (HEAD). Finally, switch back to the main branch. This ensures your changes are not lost, and you are back on a branch.

🔸 Undoing a Commit After it has Been Pushed

$ git revert commit_hash
$ git push origin main

If you’ve pushed a commit and need to undo it, use git revert to create a new commit that undoes the changes. After reverting, push the changes to the remote repository. This ensures the commit is undone without rewriting history, making it a safe option for shared branches.

These examples showcase practical solutions for common challenges in version control. Whether it’s recovering lost commits, handling detached HEAD states, or undoing pushed commits, understanding these techniques contributes to a more confident and effective version control workflow.



In conclusion, this blog underscores the pivotal role of mastering Git and GitHub Commands, understanding branching strategies, and adopting best practices in version control for developers engaged in collaborative software development. The exploration has delved into fundamental commands, such as creating branches, merging changes, and employing interactive rebasing, providing a robust foundation for managing codebase changes effectively.

The significance of Git becomes apparent in its capacity to streamline collaboration, facilitate parallel development, and enhance project management efficiency.

Furthermore, the blog has highlighted the importance of reverting changes gracefully through tools like git revert and strategic resetting, ensuring a clean project history. Interactive rebasing emerged as a versatile technique for shaping a well-organized and readable project chronicle. The emphasis on best practices, including descriptive commit messages, focused commits, and effective branch usage, underscores their role in fostering clear communication and building maintainable codebases.

Ultimately, proficiency in Git and GitHub commands is positioned not just as a skill but as a strategic advantage in the dynamic landscape of software development, empowering developers to contribute effectively, collaborate seamlessly, and build enduring software projects. Happy coding!

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